Marxist thought – the dialectic approach to ‘knowing’ history. Criticism of capitalist culture to reduce the past to a series of stylistic effects (Frederic Jameson). First, the inherent arrogance in claiming to ‘know’ history by a simple arithmetic sum. Capitalism does not claim to know history and in so doing allows the space within the cultural consciousness to come up with multiple histories. There are multiple histories, just as there are multiple futures.